What is Breast Cancer
Globally, breast cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed cancer just behind lung cancer. It is also the leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide. All over the world breast cancer is the most common female cancer, and the second most common cause of cancer death in women
The first sign of breast cancer often is a breast lump or an abnormal mammogram. Breast cancer stages range from early, curable breast cancer to metastatic breast cancer, with a variety of breast cancer treatments.
What causes Breast Cancer
Regular consumption of refined carbohydrate is linked to 220 percent increase in breast cancer among women.
Many more reasons for cancer causes check here CHEMICAL CARCINOGENESIS AND PESTICIDES AND CANCER
Breast Cancer Signs and Symptoms
The signs and symptoms of breast cancer include:
- Breast swelling a hard, immovable, single dominant swelling with irregular borders.
- Locally advanced disease The signs of more advanced disease include axillary adenopathy (axillary swelling ) or skin changes such as redness , thickening, or dimpling of the overlying breast skin .
- Metastatic disease(Stage 4) Back or leg pain, liver spread (abdominal pain, nausea, jaundice), and lungs involvment (eg, shortness of breath or cough).
- A lump or thickening in or near the breast or in the underarm that persists through the menstrual cycle
- A mass or lump, which may feel as small as a pea
- A change in the size, shape, or contour of the breast
- A blood-stained or clear fluid discharge from the nipple
- A change in the feel or appearance of the skin on the breast or nipple (dimpled, puckered, scaly, or inflamed)
- Redness of the skin on the breast or nipple
- An area that is distinctly different from any other area on either breast
- A marble-like hardened area under the skin
Investigations Breast Cancer
- Bone Scan
- PET-CT or CT Scan
- Blood tests
- Molecular Markers
Types of Breast Cancer
- Infiltrating ductal carcinoma Most common type of breast cancer, accounting for 70 to 80 percent of invasive lesions.
- Infiltrating lobular carcinoma 2nd Most common ,comprise about 8 percent of invasive breast cancers.
- Mixed ductal/lobular carcinoma A mixed histologic appearance comprising both ductal and lobular types is defined as a mixed invasive carcinoma
Treatment of Breast Cancer
Most patients with breast cancer have one or more of the following treatments:
- Surgerybreast cancer is usually treated with surgery to remove the cancer.
2 types of surgery
(A)Mastectomyis surgery to remove the whole breast.(If you choose this option, you might have to decide whether to have surgery to reconstruct your breast and when.)
(B)Breast-conserving surgery(also called "lumpectomy") is surgery to remove the cancer and a section of healthy tissue around it. People who choose this option keep their breast. But they usually must have radiation therapy after surgery.
- Radiation therapy Radiation kills cancer cells.
- Different radiation techniques are there like conventional radiation on cobalt machine and new techniques on Lineac accelerator like 3DCRT,IMRT.
- Chemotherapy Chemotherapy is the medicines that kill cancer cells or stop them from growing. Chemotherapy can be given before before surgery to shrink the cancer and make it easier to remove.chemotherapy is also given after surgery to prevent disease coming back .
- Hormone therapy It is given in patients whom hormonal markers are positive
- Targeted therapy It is given when some molecular tests shows presence of specific markers .
- Immunotherapy This is the latest development in breast cancer treatment field .it strengths bodys immune cells to fight against cancer .