Lung Cancer

lung cancer

What is Lung cancer

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer occurred in approximately 1.8 million patients in 2012 and caused an estimated 1.6 million deaths .In India it is the most common cancer due to smoking .

Both the absolute and relative frequency of lung cancer have risen dramatically. Around 1953, lung cancer became the most common cause of cancer deaths in men, and in 1985, it became the leading cause of cancer deaths in women..

The term lung cancer, or bronchogenic carcinoma, means to the cancer that originate in the airways or pulmonary parenchyma.

Approximately 95 percent of all lung cancer are classified as either small cell lung cancer (SCLC) or non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

lung cancer starts in the cells of the lung. A cancerous (malignant) tumour is a group of cancer cells that can grow into and destroy nearby tissue. It can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. When cancer starts in lung cells, it is called primary lung cancer.
The lung is part of the respiratory system. You use your lungs when you breathe. The lungs are in the chest, one on each side of the heart. The right lung has 3 main parts, called lobes. The left lung is a bit smaller and has 2 lobes. The lungs are cushioned and protected by a thin covering called the pleura.

Cells in the lung sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to non-cancerous (benign) tumours such as hamartoma and papilloma. But in some cases, changes to lung cells can cause cancer.

Types of lung cancer

Lung cancers are divided into 1.non–small cell lung cancer and 2.small cell lung cancer based on the type of cell in which the cancer started.
1.non–small cell lung cancer usually starts in glandular cells on the outer part of the lung. This type of cancer is called adenocarcinoma. Non–small cell lung cancer can also start in flat, thin cells called squamous cells. These cells line the bronchi, which are the large airways that branch off from the windpipe (trachea) into the lungs. This type of cancer is called squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Large cell carcinoma is another type of non–small cell lung cancer, but it is less common. There are also several rare types of non–small cell lung cancer. These include sarcoma and sarcomatoid carcinoma.

2.small cell lung cancer usually starts in cells that line the bronchi in the centre of the lungs. The main types of small cell lung cancer are small cell carcinoma and combined small cell carcinoma (mixed tumour with squamous or glandular cells).
Other types of cancer can spread to the lung, but this is not the same disease as primary lung cancer. Cancer that starts in another part of the body and spreads to the lung is called lung metastasis. It is not treated in the same way as primary lung cancer. Find out more about lung metastasis.
A rare type of cancer called pleural mesothelioma is often mistakenly called a lung cancer. But pleural mesothelioma starts in the pleura covering the lung and is very different from cancer that starts in the lung.

Risk factors of lung cancer

  • Risk factors
  • Smoking 
  • Radiation
  • Environmental toxins
  • Genetic factors.
  • Other Factors

  • Symptoms Of Lung Cancer

  • (1)Cough
  • (2)Difficult breathing
  • (3)Coughing up blood
  • (4)Chest pain
  • (5)Hoarse voice
  • (6)Headache
  • (7)Facial swelling

  • Investigations for lung cancer

  • Blood tests
  • CT Scan
  • Brain MRI
  • PET- CT Scan
  • Biopsy
  • Molecular tests

  • Stages of Lung Cancer

  • Stage 1
  • Stage 2
  • Stage 3
  • Stage 4- Disease spread to whole body

  • Treatment of Lung Cancer

  • Surgery Surgical removal of treatment , initial early stages are treated with surgery ,some times even in early stages surgery is possible due to many co morbid conditions of the patients like heart disease ,pulmonary disease .
  • Radiotherapy Some time when tumor removal is not possible by surgery then radiotherapy is used to treat the disease ,radiation kills tumor cells , Different types of radiotherapy techniques are available like 3DCRT, IMRT,SBRT ,IGRT .
  • Chemotherapy Cancer medicine given to treat lung cancer,some time it is given concurrently with radiotherapy to cure the disease and some time it is given as palliative therapy.Chemotherapy is associated with some side effects like nausea ,vomiting ,body ach,weakness ,anaemia,fever .
  • Targeted Therapy Targeted therapy is given when some genetic markers are present. It works only on target and side effect profile is low compare to chemotherapy and side effects are specific depending on the class of targeted therapy .
  • Immunotherapy It is the latest development in lung cancer field and it has raised hope in the lung cancer treatment and has improved the prognosis ,it is given in stage 3 and stage 4 ,Responses are good and durable ,side effects are low and specific compared to chemotherapy.
  • Experimental Therapies New Immunotherapies and targeted therepies .
  • Lung cancer Prevention

    Lung cancer Prevention – Stop smoking and adopt healthy life style .