Uterus Cancer

uterus cancer

What is Uterus cancer

Uterine cancer is the most common cancer of the female reproductive system. It is a malignant tumour that starts in the cells of the uterus. Malignant means that it can invade, or grow into, and destroy nearby tissue. It can also spread, or metastasize, to other parts of the body.
The uterus, or womb, is part of a woman’s reproductive system. The uterus is the hollow, muscular, pear-shaped organ where a fetus develops and grows during pregnancy. The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. It is made up of tissue with many glands. The lower part of the uterus is called the cervix. The cervix leads into the vagina.

What causes Uterus cancer

Cells in the uterus sometimes change and no longer grow or behave normally. These changes may lead to non-cancerous, or benign, conditions such as endometriosis. They can also lead to non-cancerous tumours such as uterine fibroids.
Changes to cells in the uterus can also cause precancerous conditions. This means that the abnormal cells are not yet cancer, but there is a chance that they may become cancer if they aren’t treated. The most common precancerous condition of the uterus is atypical endometrial hyperplasia.
In some cases, changes to cells in the uterus can cause uterus cancer.

Types of Uterus cancer

  • There are 2 main types of uterine cancer.
  • 1.Endometrial carcinoma

    Most uterine cancers are endometrial carcinoma, which starts from cells in the lining of the uterus (called the endometrium).

    2.Uterine sarcoma

    Uterine sarcoma develops in the supporting tissues of the uterus, including muscle, fat, bone and fibrous tissue (material that forms ligaments and tendons).


    A third type of cancer called carcinosarcoma sometimes develops in the uterus. It has features of both carcinomas and sarcomas.

    Rare types of uterus cancer can also develop, including gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD). Find out more about gestational trophoblastic disease.

    Symptoms or early signs of Uterus cancer

    Uterine cancer can cause different signs and symptoms as the cancer grows. Other health conditions can cause the same symptoms as uterine cancer.
    The most common symptom of uterine cancer is abnormal vaginal bleeding. This includes a change in menstruation (heavier periods, periods that last longer or periods that occur more often than normal), bleeding between periods, bleeding after menopause or spotting.

    Other signs and symptoms of uterine cancer include:

    • unusual vaginal discharge, which can be foul-smelling, pus-like or blood-tinged
    • pain during intercourse
    • pelvic pain or pressure
    • pain or feeling of pressure in the pelvis, lower abdomen, back or legs
    • pain during urination, difficult urination or blood in the urine
    • pain during bowel movements, difficult bowel movements or blood in the stool
    • bleeding from the bladder or rectum
    • buildup of fluid in the abdomen (called ascites) or in the legs (called lymphedema)
    • weight loss
    • lack of appetite
    • difficulty breathing